Cave inscription Technology Li Bo: Building a new model of data circulation

Source | IT168

Reporter | Tao Ran

With the outbreak growth of the digital economy and the successful introduction of national information security regulatory measures, privacy protection, data security has become a digital transformation of various industries and release data value.

In the context of vigorously promoting digital economic construction,Privacy calculation has become the technical best solution for balancing the contradiction between privacy safety supervision and data industry development.After experiencing the 2019 technology popularization and market education stages and 2020 large-scale concept verification and pilot deployment stages, privacy computation has gradually moved from the "good use" stage of the actual scene to the actual scene.The policy community, industry, user community, investment sector, etc.

Recently, at the AICC2021 Artificial Intelligence Calculation Conference, the author interviewed the tangible and technological partners, the market directors, Li Bo, in-depth discussion of the development of the privacy calculation industry and the practice of science and technology in the field of privacy calculations.

Cave inside the science and technology partner, the market director Li Bo accepts media interviews

In-depth application scenarios, "data can be invisible, calculate credible link"

Connection data and scenes are technical platforms. Based on the two-way accumulation of data and scenes, the development of the privacy computing technology platform in the hole is also distinguished.

Li Bo introduces that in the field of privacy calculations, there are different technical geography, the most mainstream is Multi-Safety Calculation (MPC), Federal Learning (FL) and Trusted Environment (TEE). Startup from a single technology path, often is a technology to find a scene, encounter problems and adjustment;The cave is based on the accumulation of scene specificity, forward-looking construction integration technology engine, and research how to maximize the advantages of different technical paths and minimize customer experience differences, to solve the problem of adaptation of diversity scenes.

Insightone in the cave

Therefore, the privacy technology platform of the insight is designed as a fusion engine architecture from the beginning, and the multi-party safety calculations, credible federal learning, trusted execution environment, differential privacy, zero knowledge certificate The techniques are integrated to form a new adaptive computing engine to effectively solve the diversity calculation problem in the actual scenes in the user, and "data can be invisible", at the same time, through privacy calculations intelligent contractization and algorithm contained construction distributed trust Mechanism and interconnection capabilities, implement "Calcible Credible Links".

In terms of scene applications, there are mainly focused on government affairs, finance, etc., facing government affairs, credit, joint marketing, asset management, bond index, etc., more conscientious and comprehensive product service systems, and better promotes data elements. , Data security fusion, industrial digital transformation ordered, healthy development.

Li Bo told reporters,The cave is not just a software company, but is committed to providing customers with "Left + Data, Right + Scene" data intelligent service based on the software platform.The cave is to promote the product development iteration and model effect optimization by playing its own data ecology, technology applications and scene services, and promotes product research and development iteration and model effect optimization. change.

Break the "calculation of the island" to achieve resource and value cross-platform interconnection

Under the influence of national data elementary strategy, some government agencies and financial industries have actively explored privacy calculation applications. Many local governments and financial institutions have gradually begun to deploy privacy computing platforms to promote data fusion within a certain range. However, there is also isomeric, such as the trust of each platform, including the trust of management and the trust of the technology, or the identity authentication system between the platforms, and the technical solutions and technologies used in each platform. The principle is different, which enables the platform to form "calculation island" between the platform and the platform.

Today, the demand for interconnection between privacy computing platforms is becoming more and more urgent.Li Bo introduced that the Dongji Technology as the central bank Beijing Financial Science and Technology Industry Alliance, the Ministry of Information Science and Technology, the National Information Safety Standardization Technology Commission, IEEE and other institutional investigation of the drafting unit, first practice standards and explore practices, such as participating in Beijing The Financial Science and Technology Industry Alliance "Federal Learning Technology Financial Application Specification" standard Technology is also exploring interconnection with many friends, through standards and practices to mutual verification, mutual promotion.

According to privacy calculation alliances, in June this year, there was an interconnection of the algorithm protocol layer of multi-heterogeneous privacy computing platform for the first time in June.Li Bo further said that dozens of institutions have joined this interconnection.

The interconnection of the heterogeneous privacy computing platform will inevitably drive the hundred flowers of the privacy compute platform, innovative applications such as national science and technology strategy, service entity economy, service social governance, help to develop data-driven economic and business models, reverse stimulation Production of data elements, drive data safely and application, better digital and intelligent data new infrastructure.

Work together, jointly create "privacy calculations + AI" hard work

Li Bo said to the reporter that in July this year, the cave visited the technology and the wave to achieve the company’s ecological strategy, realizing the "privacy calculation + AI" depth cooperation, with ecological combustion, data intelligent application, promoting the AI ??application landing.

In this AICC Conference, the cave in the AICC conference (Insightbox) is one of the achievements of the intelligence of technology and the wave of ecological strategic cooperation. Fusion hardware resources such as calculations, networks, storage and the inside of InsightOne privacy computing software services. Insightone platform privacy calculation algorithm, unified, mobilized, mobilize, mobilize, to achieve large-scale distributed encryption or training, breaking through communication bottlenecks of network transmission, providing billion-level data volume privacy computing business application capabilities Meet the high performance calculation requirements of the government and enterprises in the data syndrome, sharing, exchange and other scenes.

Insightbox)

Li Bo further introduced that the insightnous number of IIGHTONE has been empowered this year, and the "AISTATION + Privacy Calculation" solution has been created this year. Excellent protocol program, providing privacy set calculations and safety polynomial computing, supporting various joint computing application scenarios.

Li Bo finally said that through the meta-ecological platform, the cave will continue to compete with the leading advantages of privacy computing technology in the future.Accelerate privacy calculations, block chains and other credible AI technology applications in smart government, intelligent finance, etc., allowing data integration value to be safely released in customer actual business scenarios.

Hongmeng 2.0 system new version push, MATE40 various models recommended upgrade

Huawei Mate series mobile phone is Huawei’s high-end flagship mobile phone, with a strong hardware configuration Huawei Mate series mobile phone in the system upgrade update is another step.

Recently, Huawei’s new version of the new version of Hung Meng 2.0 system is upgraded to the MATE40 series, and the different models of Huawei Mate40 series mobile phone mobile phone are like Huawei Mate40, Huawei Mate40 Pro + and Huawei Mate40 RS, Huawei Mate40 Pro 4G, etc. Different models Different models push the new version of the new version of the Hongmeng 2.0 system.

Having Mate 40E, Mate 40, Mate 40 Pro +, Mate 40 RS Porsche design pushed Harmonyos2 2.0.0.0.218 upgrade, Huawei Mate40 Pro 4G version pushed Hongmeng 2.0.0.219 and Huawei Mate40 Pro (5G) pushed Hongmeng 2.0.0.220 upgrade .

This time, the new version of the New Version Upgrade To Huawei Mate40 Series Mobile Phone Stock Photographshot Options The Signal Area will add a new elimination feature, you can eliminate the little flaws on the simple background, let the pictures perfect, recommend you to update the experience.

Huawei Hongmeng 2.0 system is compatible with Android Applications, and there are currently many Hongmeng apps, Hongmeng 2.0 system upgrade update supports nearly 100 models upgrade, is your mobile phone upgrade to Hongmeng 2.0 system?

Good news | EZON should watch quasi-R6 Series 2021 Finalist "gold objects Award", the domestic light Adds one!

Recently, new domestic innovation contest EZON should be quasi-GPS dynamic heart smart sports watch R6 with superior technological innovation, in 2021 by the Wu Xiaobo channel, 890 new business studies and new builders of new domestics Association co-sponsored won the gold objects Award for "the most with potential "Finalist, strength should show EZON quasi-sports watch," the title of the domestic light ".

Gold was gold award

Gold objects Award as the Chinese new generation of domestic brands and product innovation local "Oscar" award to "carry forward the spirit of the craftsmen, the revitalization of domestic brand" for the mission, is committed to promote and support the revitalization of a new generation of domestic brands and businesses. Participating in a way to find the most original and innovative capabilities of the new generation of Chinese products, and has made outstanding contributions to the development of Chinese brands in product recognition and rewards.

In recent years, well-known financial writer Wu Xiaobo continue to "new domestics" advocating, he said that four decades of reform and opening up the accumulation of wealth, with "80" "90" as the young consumer groups, willing to Chinese culture, China brand pay. Behind this trend is the new generation of consumer groups aesthetic iteration iteration, iteration industrial quality and technology, the Internet and electricity sales represented a new connection. The EZON success should be quasi-R6 watches inclusion, full EZON should be quasi excellent brand strength, ingenuity and technological innovation of both product integration so highly recognized in the field of sports.

Chinese sports watch – look at the data to speak

EZON should be quasi-founded in 2008 as a Chinese professional sports brand technology, and always adhere to the user experience as the core concept, combining sports and science and technology production run way, mountaineering, heart rate belt, rope skipping, riding five series. Its products has won the China State Intellectual Property design patent contest "Best Fashion Design Award", China Red Star Award for industrial design, Chinese annual selection of outdoor equipment industry award – "outdoor equipment + intelligent" award, the national sports industry demonstration projects, well-known Chinese watch brand and other awards. EZON dynamic heart rate should be quasi-intelligent GPS sports watch R6 "gold objects Award" Finalist status is to take real old domestic professional sports watches.

The award-winning GPS product dynamic light heart rate watch R6 is deserved, high-quality GPS module equipped with a new generation of mixed-mode GPS engine technology, "GPS + Compass + GLONASS" Samsung positioning satellites covering almost mainstream world, You can achieve the effect of the speed with accurate positioning.

Accurate heart rate detection is critical for runners, watches and R6 can combine big heart rate data based on one million Chinese runners runners sports data collection, the establishment of a Chinese model base heart rate, heart rate with optical sensor, to to provide users with accurate dynamic real-time heart rate data. Effectively protect the runner safe sport.

This watch all of the data and some functions are integrated in the APP client, able to put runners on the physical assessment should EZON quasi-intelligent running AI software, training programs, exercise load, full motion and other data show out and analyze the performance of each exercise and reasonable training program for follow-up training.

Why should EZON quasi stand out in many traditional watch brands?

Mr. Joseph Chan Yuan founded EZON should be quasi-brand in the background of foreign sports watch prevailed, adhere to build a sports watch part of China, sowing the belief of leading the development of appropriate quasi-sports watch, from "Made in China" to "Chinese wisdom make". Since 2008, EZON quasi-brands should not only opened a new era of intelligent movement, and closely follow the development of high technology, based on the "AI + health campaign" open platform of Internet technology, now has 120 million professional runners data, the establishment of a belonging to the Chinese people’s heart rate model library.

EZON should help prospective for sports it is also duty-bound, in the meantime, to establish a joint laboratory EZON wearable should be registered with the Sports Science Institute of the State Sports General Administration, intelligent, scientific ideas help track and field sports training in Fujian Province. Equipped with a self-study by the light of the heart rate module wearable smart devices, achieve professional accuracy and analysis of training results data collection, provide a scientific basis for sporting events. EZON should be quasi born with high-precision manufacturing and electronic information technology, the combination of genes, has become the Chinese watch top ten enterprises. In the first year of wearable devices, it should be quasi-stand the forefront, independent research and development of innovative technologies and intelligent algorithms, AI has been successfully transformed into intelligent motion wearable brand of high-tech equipment.

Over the years, EZON should always provide prospective "software + hardware + services" integration of scientific and technological innovations for smart sports industry, bringing personalized for the sports enthusiasts, multi-functional intelligent AI products. Future, Brigadier General should continue to uphold the "user experience as the core" brand philosophy, more focused on the field of artificial intelligence movement, giving users higher technology, more efficient movement of health services.

The current international situation is grim, domestic products and innovative R & D is the key.国货当自强, need to continue the development of national and domestic brands, long-term layout, so that Chinese brands to go abroad, so that domestic products to show in the public eye, let the tide country became an attitude.

Social mechanism: What kind of moral constraints do you need?

This is the most interesting direction I feel that the Yuan Cosmic series is equivalent to departing from the development of human society, studying morality (criteria) and ethics. I think I have a possible part of the law.

In addition, in the metacularity, how to dig morality (guidelines) and ethics, laws, etc. are also a very interesting thing. Now the so-called system, in fact, it does not integrate these into the digital world. In the future, is there a lot of companies, starting to develop morality (criteria) and ethical digital protocols, and use the ability to supply all nets as the underlying capacity, not known. Of course, I believe this is really a future, and it is also exciting.

Here, some articles, reports, and academic paper research results are organized. Let everyone have a preliminary understanding of the part.

Ethical constraints: How to build the ethical framework consensus of the Yuan Universe in the deposition framework, still need to explore from a multi-angle. The ideal concept of the universe is a high degree of freedom, high openness, and high-inclusive contrast "class Utopia" world. As a super realistic assembly of various social relations, complex rules such as moral standards, power structure, distribution logic, organizational morphology, etc. Also need to be clearly defined and specified. High degrees of freedom do not mean that behavior is unconstrained, high openness is not bound to infinitely generalization, but how to build a metacular ethical framework consensus in the deposition framework, still need to explore from multi-perspective.

Create a "Yuan Universe", the government, capital and the people have their own functions. In the early days, the government’s role is quite important. On May 18, 2021, South Korea announced the establishment of a "Yuan Cosmic Alliance" consisting of local companies. The goal is to establish a unified national VR and AR’s enhancement platform to clarify the moral and legal norms of virtual environment to ensure The universe "is not a space that is monopolized by a single big company," as a new public product. South Korea’s national "Yuan Cosm Alliance" is worthy of attention and learning.

The report combs from the top ten warning of the development of Yuancai industry from the level of public opinion, capital manipulation, technical resources, industrial ecology, moral ethics, legal norms.

From the perspective of moral ethics, the Yuancai as a super realistic assembly of various social relations, the moral standards, power structure, allocation logic, organizational forms, etc. need to clearly define and standardize, how to construct a consensus of Yuancai ethics framework, Still need to explore from a multi-angle view.

From the legal norms, the Yuancosk has public and social, and its need to build a complete monetary system, economic order, social rules, management system, cultural system and even value system, and rumors, violence, fraud, and Problems such as capital exploitation, extremism, will also exist in the metacularity, need to strengthen the constraint from legal norms.

In addition, the report also proposes that the Yuan Cosmic Industry also needs to face the challenges of dunger risk, privacy risks, and intellectual property risks. Based on the index modeling and large data mining, a healthy assessment of the metamorostere industry development is pointed out that the underground cosmic industry is still in sub-health, and it is still in the stage of concept innovation and model innovation. In the future, it is necessary to further rely on technological innovation and The common role of institutional innovation can realize the healthy development of industries.

Author’s Lee Real (Chief Economist, Chief Economist of ICB)

The Yuanhe Universe is a virtual parallel time and space with the real world, how is it important to implement, but moral ethics is constrained by another change in the process of development, and we recommend investors to pay close attention to Internet supervision trends, in the Yuancosian In the early stage of construction, we will continue to hold a large-scale technology enterprise with diversified investment, and do not ignore the advance deployment in the fields of network security, privacy computing, block chains.

At present, China and US investors are still incomplete in the layout of the Yuan Universe (as shown in Figure 2). Yuan Coso is not just a more immersive mobile Internet re-enhancement, but a parallel virtual time and space with the real world, how to implement it is an aspect, and moral ethics constraints are key variables of another left and right development process.

From the moral perspective, Yuancai Investment needs to be launched in two dimensions. The first is to promote good connection. The goal of rational people in economic activities is the maximization of their own interests, and thus at the beginning of the establishment of the Yuan Universe, the economic sustainable operation, the ecological constant enrichment is unfunctive. Effective economic incentive mechanism. In the mobile Internet age, the continued decrease in information asymmetry and transaction costs has made it possible to create a new creator economic model in individual value. However, due to the use of market position to capture excess values, the enthusiasm of individual release value is lowered. For example, recent game development company EPIC Games allegations Apple receives 30% "Apple Tax" by monopolizing the game app store, inhibition of the innovation of game developers. In addition to hoping for the government’s mandatory interference, we can also change this status through technology, with the full capture and delivery of the excitation mechanism of digital currency and block chains, so that the platform truly pays the income control to the developer.

The second is to curb the interaction of evil. The virtual space of traditional games is created by the centralized game company, "one button restart" blurred the boundaries of life rights, and virtual property has not really true that the game company has an absolute disposal of individual virtual property. Thus, under the premise of complete independence, violations of the basic rights of others are usually not limited. However, as the Yuan Cosmo is connected to the physical world and the virtual world, NFT marks the digital item as private, and we need to re-examine the boundaries of virtual crime. Obviously, we can’t tolerate the NFT artworks collected in the virtual world to be robbed (hacker intrusion), and you can’t accept your own place to be monitored (privacy violation). Therefore, network security and privacy calculations are an indispensable part of the Yuan universe, and even the expression of technology. We have found that A-share investors have already focused on the theme of cyber security, and the US RoundHill Ball MetaVerse ETF has not been included.

The evolution of the Yuan Universe may experience the following three stages. However, it is necessary to emphasize that the evolution of the Yuan Cosmic phase is still a huge uncertainty in the vitality of the Yuan Cosmic concept. We recommend investors to pay close attention to the evolution of basic science and underlying technology and the development trend of Internet supervision, and adjust investment decisions in a timely manner. .

The first phase (1-5 years): a virtual combination. In the primary stage of the Yuan Universe, the production process and demand structure of the existing physical world have not changed. The business model fused on the line will continue to evolve in the immersion experience. Take the clothing, the early days we got a flat information by browsing the graphic evaluation on the e-commerce platform, and the buyer show and the seller show became ridicule; today’s short video and live band became a tide, and the stereochemical interactive presented clothing The effects of different models are reduced to a certain extent, and the future of the AR or VR technology will be seen directly under the blessing of Ar or VR technology, we are expected to see the visual effects present on themselves, thus making more reasonable purchase decisions. The so-called ears is virtual, seeing is true, from the surface, the immersion sensation is a rich in sensory experience, and analyzing from the kernel, the immersive experience is in fact, which is fully obtained. It may be more useful and useful information to promote the virtual experience and the interaction of the real world. It can be seen that the key area of ??this stage of investment lies in the tools of immersion experience and O2O faucets with brand cooperation. The current diversified business is still the main beneficiary object. With Ar or VRs enter the commercial phase, the popularity of consumer products will also bring extensive investment opportunities to the entire industrial chain.

The second phase (5–20 years): virtual and real. Digital technology will not only become more realistic virtual worlds, it will also transform the physical world of the production process. Mob Research Institute data show that as of December 2020, affected by the epidemic, when annual per capita daily use of mobile phones reached 5.72 hours long, remove the sleep time (assuming 8 hours) accounts for about 36 percent of the time throughout the day. We predict that in the second stage the proportion of people in the virtual space of time is expected to rise to 60%, on the one hand, artificial intelligence, big data, industry intelligence and other advanced technology boosts productivity, labor demand in the real world plummeted; On the other hand, constantly enrich the connotation of the virtual world, not just entertainment, our work and life gradually migrate to the yuan universe. Artificial intelligence, bionic man, the base engine and other related business will become officially entered the commercial stage.

The third stage (over 20 years): Virtual reality that is. Yuan universe is the ultimate form of human life, and the entire brain that is uploaded to the virtual space of human interaction by means of brain computer interface technology, and to rid itself of the shackles of the physical shell. By then, the proportion of human beings in the virtual space of time could be close to 100%, while the physical needs of mankind will continue to decrease, replaced by a full spiritual awareness. In this state, the physical world is currently on the production of basic necessities may be completely meaningless, meta universe even do not need to simulate all kinds of reality in the virtual world, but to provide sensory stimulation directly to the corresponding effect of human neurons, but it will also facing a retrial ethics. In the "decarbonization into silicon" in the process, humans may eventually be able to overcome their fear of their presence in technological breakthroughs, evolve into a higher-dimensional beings.

"This is why the XR Safety Initiative, we will continue to help emerging reality around privacy, security and moral development of guidelines." Kavya Pearlman XR Safety Initiative founder and CEO.

Deepfakes & Alternate Representations of Reality.The Metaverse marketers need to invest in network security to prevent data manipulation scandal and brand. Deepfakes, hackers are manipulating objects and avatars marketers must master some type of malicious behavior. For example, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Mozilla recently released a Deepfake video, showing President Nixon announced the Apollo 11 moon landing did not complete the task successfully. This alternative reality on the video to get a lot of coverage, and help to further promote dialogue on fraud and moral depth.

Respect for the consumer. Pearlman said that when we build these augmented reality and virtual reality by the push of a beautiful new world, we need to proactively address security, privacy and ethical issues in the field. Under no lack of informed consent and risk of these complex technologies to bring awareness of the situation, we are torn between trust and dystopian. That’s why professionals need to start a dialogue and establish the cause of these best practices. Pearlman added that the only way in the world where seeing is believing, establishing and maintaining trust through ethics, accountability, transparency and people-oriented design.

Meta Ethics for the Metaverse: The Ethics of Virtual Worlds (paper)

After the overall argument of the paper a brief introduction, the second part of the thesis provides a meta ethical framework of a moral theory based on Alan Gewei Si (Alan Gewirth), which should be to determine what (if any) It is necessary. Guiding people to participate in the virtual world as a designer, administrator or avatars and player behavior code of ethics. Since the virtual world and the World Wide Web in the scope, coverage and use are global in nature, thus providing a theoretical maximum Gewei Si ethical principles, namely the principle of universal consistency (PGC) to establish universal rights of all people anytime, anywhere, is particularly suitable this task. The paper shows that the real world and the virtual world people have the right to freedom and happiness. Strictly on the agency, these rights only on the surface, but in terms of personality built around the concept of self-esteem, these rights are absolute. The third part is the last part of the more practical details and the application of research papers virtual world designers, managers and incarnation of why and how to regulate according to their own internal goals of rational organization committed to the need for universal respect for ethical behavior. The right to freedom and well-being of all agents, including their own rights. Use Alan Gewirth argument for universal principle of consistency (Reason and Morality, 1978) and the Ethics Within Reason: A Neo-Gewirthian Approach (2006) in the extended argument PGC, the article proved particularly sought, it can be considered in terms of an avatar is a virtual representation of real people or presentation (at least in some virtual world where avatars Alerts can be considered to be instantiated in the real world to personify proxy extension) and therefore, they can and must be considered virtual agents with a purpose, then they have a moral right and obligation to their real counterparts similar. Finally, the article will show examples of virtual worlds must always comply with the rules by the end-user license agreement and administrators of the code designer (EULA) and comply with established on the basis of universal moral requirements. PGC’s. When the two come into conflict, PGC as the supreme principle of morality, always overwhelming.

Artificial intelligence era, if things are handed over to the machine, will human beings will degrade?

Human civilization can continue due to continuous development, and because of technology update development we can experience so convenient and efficient life. The technology industry will have a new huge change every 10 to 20 years. This is a process of constantly breaking from self, and a process of continuous improvement of life demand.

From the steam era to the electrical era, we now come to our current technology era. Every scientific and technological transformation has brought amazing changes to the society. Can you imagine a plane high-speed railway in three hundred years ago? Can you imagine there is a day without a mobile computer for more than a hundred years ago? We can’t predict that the present is now a hundred years, and even the progress of human beings will play a degree after a thousand years, some of the current development signs already have a foreseeable sign.

As a technology product in nearly 50 years, it is not too long. The birth of the Internet can be said to be a kind of invention in influence the human society in the past two decades. Of course, there is still the rash of the mobile Internet trend, and smartphones have become our favorite partners. There is no one. Artificial intelligence that is frequently filed in the last two years is the field of the next human beings to focus on.

Artificial intelligence is also known as AI, simple point to describe smart machines with behavioral response in human wisdom, is an analog machine for human awareness, thinking handling methods, can accomplish some human wisdom to complete Complex work. Although there is no way to develop a smart machine that can be thought about doing things like human beings in the current science and technology level, the development speed of technology is so fast, who can be said? It is also very likely that some people really develop it.

If the artificial intelligence machine can really replace human doing, what should we do? Don’t have to do a full set of family intelligent machine helpers, you only need to enter a few commands to let the machine to think and execute themselves, and even if you want to eat, you can call the robot to be automatically sent to you, it is hard to imagine Such a life of our hands and the brain are "pet" to something. It’s really degradable that time, what I have not used for a long time.

Artificial intelligence also has its two-sided nature, which is convenient for the public, and will also laze the public. We also need to find a balance between a person and science and technology.

Focus on the classic game bee 40 years ago, this time it clears the source code

This article is suitable for friends with C language

Here is the "explanation of open source project" series in Hellogithub. In this issue, the childhood memory after 80, 90 is born in the 1978 classic arcade game "space aggressor" is also called "small bee" C language recovery. Sound versionSi78c.

This game can be described as a very popular at the time. I believe many friends have been playing. Now grow up, I don’t know how many friends are interested in it!

The original "space aggressor" is written by the 8080 assembly code of approximately 2K lines, but the assembly language is too late to read. The open source project Si78C explained in accordance with the original assembly code in accordance with the C language in accordance with the original assembly code. The interruption, equilation logic of the original arcade hardware,At runtime, its memory status is almost the same as the original version. Almost reached the perfect replica, really let me look at it!

Let’s take a sliver with Hellogithub, run this open source project, read the source code, through history and experience the exquisiteness of the game design!

The experimental environment in this article is Ubuntu 20.04 Ltd, the GCC version is greater than GCC 3

first Si78c Use SDL2 to draw game windows, so you need to install dependencies:

Then download the source code from the warehouse:

In addition, the project will extract the original game from the original ROM, the font, so you need to download the original ROM file.

New names INV1 and BIN in the Si78C source folder

Then extract the contents of the Invaders.zip to INV1, and the last directory structure is as follows:

Compile with Make:

The executable will be generated in the bin folder, running to start the game:

The game control button is as follows:

The "Space Aggressor" original code is running on the 8080 processor, and its content is written by assembly code and involves some hardware operations. In order to simulate the logic of the original arithm code, Si78c is most likely to convert assembly code to C language and use A MEM structure simulates the hardware of the original arcade, so some code is more strange and even incredible from the perspective of pure software, but the reason for the reason is not possible to explain the code all the articles, so readers will cooperate with myself. Read this article in detail.

Si78c Use the UContex library to simulate the process scheduling and interrupt operation of the original arithcher.

Agreement: The weigh is more light and fast, saving resources, and the science will be equivalent to the thread for the process.

Ucontext provides GetContext, MakeContext, SwapContext, and STCONText functions to create and switch,Si78c The initialization function is init_thread. Below we are directly to see the examples in the source code:

If you are not enough here, you can look at the back state transition diagram, and the graphic combines more intuitive.

Code 2-1

Each time you call Yield will use SwapContext to switch between two cables:

Code 2-2

Please see the details

Due to the limited article space, only the key source section is shown below. More detailed source code progressive Chinese Note:

Address: https://github.com/anthonysun256/easy_games

The foregoing said that Si78c is the original altokyPixel levelEven most of the memory data is also equal. In order to do this Si78C simulated part of the hardware of the arcade: RAM, ROM, and memory, they are packaged into a large structure called MEM, the memory allocation is as follows :

  • 0000-1FFF 8K ROM
  • 2000-23FF 1K RAM
  • 2400-3FFF 7K Video Ram
  • 4000 – Ram Mirror

It can be seen that the RAM of the machine is only a poor 1kb size, and each bit is as long as the precious need to carefully plan. Here is a RAM allocation table, more details

Before detailed explanation of the game animation, we need to understand how the material is stored:

Figure 2-1

Image from arcade assembly code interpretation

In the original ROM of the arcade, the game material is stored in memory directly in the binary format, among whicheveryoneBinary means that the current position pixel is black or white

for example Figure 2-1 Display 0x1ba0 position memory data is 00 03 04 78 14 13 08 1A 3D 68 FC FC 68 3D 1A 00Eight-line The arrangement and coming is an alien with a picture of an upside down letter "Y" (the content in the figure looks like a rotation 90 degrees because the picture is a list of stores,Every 8 bit represents a column of pixels.

The authors of the Si78C exchange the X Y axis directly exchange the X Y axis while displaying pictures to achieve the effect of rotating pictures.

We can find a structure called MEM, where M.vram (0x2400 to 0x3FFF) simulates the memory of the arcade, which isEvery bit represents a pixelBlack (0) white (1), rendering from the lower left corner, its correspondenceFigure 2-2:

Figure 2-2

All the code related to animated drawings in the game are data modified in this part of the area, such as Drawchar, ClearplayField, DrawSImpSprite, and more. So how do you let the simulated existing content display on the player’s screen? Watch carefullyCode 3-1 The render function is called at the end of the loop, which is responsible for reading the contents of the analog memory and rendering a pixel block on the window on the window.

If you think about it, it is not difficult to find that this method of modifying analog appearance and renovation, there is no more province, even a bit weird. This is because Si78C simulates the display process of arcade hardware: modify the corresponding display and then the hardware will automatically display the content in the memory to the screen.

Code 3-1 The input function is responsible for detecting and storeing the user’s button information, which relies on the SDL library.

Third, the first start

Si78c Like all C processes, they are starting from the main function:

Code 3-1

The startup process is as shown in the figure:

Figure 3-1

The game original code (8080 assembly) is used byInterrupt drive(This programming method is related to hardware, the specific content can be understood by itself. Interrupt)CooperateTrust operation. In order to simulate the logic author of the original game, the author is a large cycle as a hardware behavior simulation center (implement interrupt management, sweeping, screen rendering). The game is about one-third of the time in running the main thread, and the main thread will be seized by two interrupts of Midscreen and Vblank.Code 3-1 The two IRQs achieve an analog to the interrupt (set the corresponding variable as a flag).

exist the first time When entering loop_core, its procedure is as follows:

Figure 3-2

Because Yield_Rason this variable is a static typeThe default is zero

Code 3-2

It should be noted that the switching switch is performed in Execute. At this time, the execute of Execute is saved in the variable frontend_ctx, the pointer prev_ctx update is to the Frontend_CTX, the pointer curr_ctx is updated to point_ctx, the process is as shown Show:

Figure 3-3

Implementation, please see Code 2-2

When EXECUTE returns, he will return to loop_core according to the normal execution process, just like it has never been paused.

Carefully observe the main loop in main_init we can find that it multiple times the TimeSlice function (such as OneSecdelay), through this function we can implement the time slice rotation operation between Main_CTX and Frontend_CTX, the process is as follows:

Figure 3-4

It mainly has made the following in main_init:

Before the player coin coin, the game relies on the main_init loop play animation to attract players.

If you only turn on the function appearing in main_init that we will send the current code that there is no too much game logic, such as aliens move, shoot, players, etc., it seems that there is no existence, more time is in manipulation Memory, set the flag. So where is the function related to game game logic processing? This part of the content will be revealed below.

Fourth, simulation interruption

exist Code 3-1 The loop_core function is separated by two IRQs. We mentioned before The large cycle in main is in nature is the hardware behavior of the simulated arcade.In the real machine, the interrupt is only executed when trigger, but we can only call IRQ between Loop_core.Simulation is interruptedAnd poll the interrupt state in Execute to determine whether it enters the interrupt processing function, the process is as follows:

At this time it is as follows:

There are two interrupts: MidScreen_INT and VBLANK_INT will appear in turn.

Code 4-1

Let’s first look at Midscreen_Int:

Code 4-2

In this section, the RungameObjs function basically includes players’s mobile and drawing, player bullets and aliens’ bullets, collision detection, drawing, etc. All game logic, CursorNextalien finds the next live alien to be drawn People set the flag to wait for the drawing, and detect whether the alien spacecraft encounters the bottom of the screen.

After running, return to run_int_ctx Continue to run until Yield (Yield_INTFIN) indicating that the execove back EXECUTE, and re-set the next to main_ctx in Execute to make main_init to continue to run (seeCode 3-2.

The next is VBLANK_INT:

Code 4-3

Its main role is whether the player wants to exit the game or carry out the coin operation. If it is already in the game mode, play the fleet sound in sequence, draw the aliens who recorded in MidScreen_INT, running RungameObjs to handle players and alien The people are fired and movement events, and Timetosaucer randomly generate mysterious flying saucer. If it is not in the game mode, enter isrsPLTASKS to adjust the animation that should play on the current screen.

We can notice that if the player has incorporated into if (M.NumCoinS!=0), and then call Yield (Yield_Wait_for_start) will prompt this function to return. There will be such a prompt in many places in the code of Si78c, which is not a simple call to a function that does not return to make a knot.

observe Code 3-2 Can be found in YIELD_PLAYER_DEATH, YIELD_WAIT_FOR_START, YIELD_INVADED, YIELD_TILT these four branches are called init_threads (yield_reason), this function will reset in int_ctx and main_ctx stack and re-binding parameters when calling run_main_ctx is yield_reason, so next time When executed, run_main_ctx will jump to the appropriate branch to run according to the interrupt indication.

When the opening, it mentioned that the RAM of the arcade only has poor 1kb size, so small places must not let us store information about each object on the screen, but the player’s position, the location of the alien, and their bullets, screen The shield damage will be updated in real time, how to do this?

I found that the "space aggressors" game area content is still very regular, special spacecraft (UFO) will only appear on the top of the screen, the position of the shield and players will not change, only the position of the bullet is not good, so carefully study the code carefully It can be seen from DrawSpriteGeneric that the game is only simple to determine whether the pixel block is complicated. When the player bullet is hit, when it is judged in the Playershot function, it is only necessary to judge the vertical direction coordinate (Y coordinate), if >=216 is hitting the top,>=206 is hitting mysterious flying saucer, others are hitting the shield or alien bullets. And because the alien spacecraft is a group of exercises, only one of the positions can be calculated out of the coordinates of each alien spacecraft.

This is calculated, the program only needs to save the survival status of the alien spacecraft, the current fleet relative movement position, player and aliens bullet information, when you need to detect the collision, the pixel information in the memory is used to compare the current, then push the current When there is a collision of two objects, this method saves many resources compared to information of each object.

Si78c Unlike other code, it is essentially simulation of hardware and assembly code, hoping to explain the source code of this article, let more people see the difficulties of making excellent games under limited resources, as well as code design Exquisite.

Finally, I would like to thank the author of this project. There is no such article without his payment. If you feel that this article is not bad, welcome to share to more people.

Stimulate! On December, the first day of Cool Glory "Fairy Fight", friend’s "secret" or exposed

In December, it is really very lively for a month. All brands of new mobile phones are released, Huawei, Cool, glory, Xiaomi and other brands have new machines to build, quite a momentum of the year. Branders not only piled up new machines, cool, glory, and the conferences were collected, and they all chose to be held on December 1. Is this going to open "fighting"? But there is a wonderful connection between the two conferences. One of them is the most expectation in recent years, because "good play" is too much, it is said that the entire machine will "tremble"!

Glory 60

As early as possible, glory has preheated glory 60 in the social platform. The glory of the glory of the glory of 60 series of creative posters exposed on the social platform, the same as the official’s propaganda, which uses a starry subject. We can also see by warm-up video that the back cover seems to have the visual effect of the starry sky, it looks very bright eye-catching. Therefore, the glory high-level call is "2021 mobile phone color ceiling", and at the same time from the official preheating slogan "beauty, let go to shoot", it is not difficult to guess this new machine or the main image shooting function, and the new function will Largely improve the "single dog" to take pictures, people are very curious!

Cool Cool20pro

Cool sent to the launch conference on the same day, after the glory 60 series official, also forwarded the information of the people to express "different stars, the same day meet". To be honest, the first look, many netizens feel that the performance of Cool sent is very atmospheric. Although it is far from the era of Zhonghua Cool, it has went to foreign countries to develop, regardless of its reputation or market share, but there is a gap with glory, but the big factory in Cool is not lost at all. And after Xiaobian understands the call for Cool, this is too fragrant!

Speaking here, many friends should also guess what I said before, will make the machine circle "trembling", is the conference held by Cool. Why do you say that? From the poster of Cool sent before, it is coming, what high-priced low, the high-priced advertising fee, the impact "high-end machine" … Undoubtedly, "secrets" can’t be said to be said. Why is Cool to be so brave? Xiaobian predicted two reasons.

The first, the coolness of just returning to China is urgent to prove that he is impressed by it. Everyone is impressed to its stereotypes, clearing the future development, information will be publicly transparent, do real conscience brands! The second is to confidently confident on home new products, I don’t need to play the industry "set", I can get the favor of the public.

But no matter what reason, the attitude of coolness is commendable. I feel that tonight’s conference will definitely have more good play, how will our friends deal? Can Cool new products be amazed?

2021 four reputation, good mobile phone recommended! Be practical and affordable, have you used it?

I don’t know how to pick it up. Today, the author is taking care of the five-word mouthfuls of mobile phones, and the performance is good, come and see it!

iPhone13 Pro

The iPhone13 Pro series works first-class, delicate touch, 6.06-inch screen, which uses Samsung overview XDR screen, super-porcelain panel, and excellent falling ability. Support 120Hz refresh rate + promotion technology, according to the automatic adjustment of the refresh rate, can achieve the balance of power saving and smooth use experiences. The full blood A15 processor has strong performance, compared to the upper generation monoconuclear performance, multi-core performance is 16%. The hanging dragon 888, power consumption and heat transfer are lower.

Cool Cool20pro

The cool Cool20pro is about to be released on December 1st, and it has been determined that it has a beautiful appearance, a symmetrical two-stereo speaker, 120Hz adaptive high brush screen, support WiFi-6 and 5G dual cards, It is all the configuration of the flagship model, and the experience in audio and video should be great. Interested friends can pick up a hand.

Among a mid-end mobile phone, let everyone have more choices, after all, people who have certain people will need this price. 3000 can be bought a 9R mobile phone, which is quite good, because this mobile phone costs are not low, it is understood that, with this mobile phone, we have obtained sales and reputation. One plus 9R front is equipped with amoled flexible straight screen, which supports 120 Hz high refresh rate. In terms of configuration, it is equipped with the Snapdragon 870 processor. After 48 megapixel four-touch design, built-in 4500mAh big battery, and there is a 65W super fast charging function, which can be said that every aspect is taken in place, which is high. Mobile phone. One plus this brand is very popular overseas. In recent years, it is more familiar with everyone in the Chinese market, and the ultra-high cost performance makes many people like it.

Black shark 4s: the strongest game mobile phone

The game mobile phone has always had a stable user group. This newly released black shark 4s can capture 90% of them. The core configuration of the black shark 4S is Qualcomm Snapdragon 870 processor + UFS3.1 + LPDDR5 combination, in addition to this flagship parameter, also equipped with RAMDisk disk accelerator technology, through memory simulation disk space, eliminating hard disk reading and writing action, thus Lift the game and the start, loading, and running speed of the application.

For a long time, the hardware and software "plug-in" of the game is the key to the black shark 4S and other games. The textured switch design shoulders, which has been called "physical plug"!

The above is the four new machines with a word-of-mouth. Do you want to buy the impulse? Welcome to the comment area message sharing!